Example 1. H2O2, NaOH OH OsO4, pyridine Os O O NaHSO3 OH OH O1. H3O+ OH O1. H3O+ OH O O 1. Summary. Reagents : commonly a base such as NaOH or KOH is added to the ketone. Chemical reaction.

Chem 342 • Organic Chemistry II Need to know Reactions and Mechanisms for Exam 03 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones O a hemiacetal +2ROH H+ HOOR an acetal ROOR (+ ROH) (+OH) (-H 2O) Wittig Reaction +Ph 3PCH 2 phosphonium ylide +Ph 3PO O Both aldehydes and ketones participate. The mechanism of reaction between the acidic oxide and the alkali depends on the concentration of the alkali solution. 1. Balancing chemical equations. LiAlH4, ether 2. Al will react with aqueous NaOH to give Sodium Aluminate with rapid evolution of H2 gas. mechanism 33 - nucleophilic substitution of a halogenoalkane by hydroxide ion (S N 2 'bimolecular') showing the intermediate transition state ('activated complex') in a 3D representation - note the inversion of the crucial carbon atom, if its an asymmetric carbon atom you don't produce the optical (R/S) isomer you might expect! CH3MgBr 2. LiAlH4, ether 2. Example 1. NaBH4 OH 1.BH3, THF 2. H3O+ OH O 1. Carbonic acid react with sodium hydroxide to produce sodium carbonate and water. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids 9. Mechanism!!!!! Balancing chemical equations.

Although ketone enolates are good nucleophiles, the aldol reaction of ketones is usually not particularly successful. H3O+ OH O O1. Phenol is a weak acid, so it’ll donate a proton to the hydroxyl ions in the aqueous solution of NaOH to form water, with the phenol becoming the phenolate anion thus: PhOH ⇌ PhO− + H+ C6H5OH + NaOH → C6H5ONa + H2O Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and students in the field of chemistry. A mixture of the SM (10 g, 21 mmol) and NaOH(s) (4.3 g, 107 mmol) in THF/MeOH/H2O (25 mL, 2 mL, 75 mL) was stirred at 50 C for 4 h. The reaction mixture was acidified to pH 2 using aq 2N HCl and the resulting precipitate was filtered then purified by silica gel column chromatography (90:10:1 DCM/MeOH/NH3) to provide the product as a yellow solid. Chemical reaction. 2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O → 2 NaAlO2 + 3 H2 But this is just the theoretical way to write the reaction. NaBH4 2. Unsymmetrical!alkynes!give!a!mixture!of!ketones! Hg(OAc)2, H2O 2.

Balance the reaction of H2C6H6O6 + NaOH = Na2C6H6O6 + H2O using this chemical equation balancer! Reaction as a proton Acid (Section 20-4, 20-5) R O O OH-+ H-X (proton acid) NaOH (or other bases, including amines) Na carboxylate salt (basic) • Mechanism: Required (deprotonation) • Reverse Mechanism: Required (protonation) • Carboxylic acids are completely converted to carboxylate salts by base

Hydrogen peroxide react with sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen-sodium peroxideand water. H3O+ OH O OH 1. To a solution of the SM (2.31 g, 7.77 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) and H2O (2.8 mL) was added NaOH (0.46 g, 11.7 mmol). CH3MgBr 2. The Aldol Reaction of Ketones Reaction type : Nucleophilic addition. Title: 09_hydroboration_ox_internal_alkynes LiAlH4, ether 2. Balance the reaction of P4 + NaOH + H2O = PH3 + Na2HPO3 using this chemical equation balancer! 1) BH3 / THF 2) H2O2 / NaOH O BH3 / THF BH2 2 more times B OOH B O RR OH R B O R OH O R B OH R + 2 more times BO4 3-eventually 3 equivalents sodium borate O Acid workup HO enol form O keto form. A detailed mechanism illustrating the conversion of an ester to a carboxylic acid under basic hydrolysis conditions (NaOH). SO2 is an acidic oxide, and will react with NaOH in two stages: SO2 + NaOH ----> NaHSO3 (sodium hydrogensulphite) NaHSO3 + NaOH ----> Na2SO3 + H2O (sodium sulphite)